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Diagnosis of Proteus mirabilis

Proteus mirabilis UTI diagnosis. The most definitive form of evaluation for an acute Proteus mirabilis infection is a culture. Proteus species are gram-negative, rod-shaped, and facultatively anaerobic. The majority of strains are lactose negative with a characteristic swarming motility that will become evident on agar plates Proteus mirabilis is a gram-negative facultative anaerobe with swarming motility and an ability to self-elongate and secrete a polysaccharide which allows it to attach to and move along surfaces like catheters, intravenous lines, and other medical equipment. The most definitive form of evaluation for an acute P. mirabilis infection is a culture Diagnosis. The infection with Proteus mirabilis can be diagnosed by taking a urine sample. If the sample is alkaline, this might suggest the infection with Proteus mirabilis. In the laboratory, the diagnosis of the infection with Proteus mirabilis is made based on the above-mentioned swarming motility Proteus mirabilis is a kind of bacteria responsible for causing infections in your body. This bacterium mostly causes urinary tract infections and formation of stones 1. Proteus mirabilis belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It ferments maltose but not lactose

Proteus Mirabilis diagnosis. The microbiological diagnostics are done with the cultivation of appropriate study materials and the biochemical identification. Proteus vulgaris strains are due to Betalaktamasebildung inherently resistant to many beta-lactam antibiotics [eg A species of Proteus mirabilis Typically, these bacteria live on the skin and mucous membranes of internal organs, blood they penetrate into the bladder. Using special hairs Proteas can be mounted on the walls of the endothelium of the urinary tract and cling to the internal organs Proteus mirabilis: Morphology, Pathogenesis, Clinical significance, diagnosis (Microbiology)Hi Everyone!This short video will help you cover this microbiolog.. Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been isolated concomitantly from cases of suppurative nephritis or pyelonephritis. Infection in immunodeficient mice is typified by splenomegaly and focal necrotizing hepatitis. Pulmonary lesions include edema and macrophage activation. Septic thrombi can occur, however, in many tissues

The uropathogens are consistent across the globe. The most prevalent uropathogenic gram negative bacteria are Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia. Early detection and precise diagnosis of these infections will play a pivotal role in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors Diagnosis is commonly based on microbiological analysis, early articular puncture biopsy is performed before the initiation of antibiotic treatment, direct examination, culture and antibiogram which are useful as guidance for antibiotic therapy Diagnosis. An alkaline urine sample is a possible sign of P. mirabilis. It can be diagnosed in the lab due to characteristic swarming motility, and inability to metabolize lactose (on a MacConkey agar plate, for example). Also P. mirabilis produces a very distinct fishy odor TEM is another common ESBL in P. mirabilis , and the most common type of ESBL in P. mirabilis isolates from Croatia and Italy (5, 125, 138).A new TEM (TEM-187) has been reported in P. mirabilis, which has broad activity against penicillins but lower activity than TEM-1 (31, 32).It has been suggested that TEM-187 may represent an evolution of TEM enzymes from penicillinases to ESBLs, leading to underestimation of ESBLs in P. mirabilis A nosocomial outbreak of infections due to multiply resistant Proteus mirabilis: role of intestinal colonization as a major reservoir. Chow AW, Taylor PR, Yoshikawa TT, Guze LB J Infect Dis 1979 Jun;139(6):621-7. doi: 10.1093/infdis/139.6.621

Background: Proteus mirabilis (PM) as well as other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are a leading cause of infectious diseases in both the community and acute care settings. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates have increased in the last few years, affecting the prognosis and survival of hospitalized patients The most definitive form of evaluation for an acute P. mirabilis infection is a culture. Proteus species are gram-negative, rod-shaped, and facultatively anaerobic. The majority of strains are lactose negative with characteristic swarming motility that will become evident on agar plates Differential diagnosis. The CT findings were very suggestive of an infected aneurysm of the aortic arch. We reviewed our initial diagnosis of pneumonia being the source of her P. mirabilis bacteraemia, as it is unusual for this to be originating from the respiratory tract. An infected aneurysm was considered a more likely source and there had likely been an antecedent infection of unknown origin, with direct seeding to an atherosclerotic thoracic aorta The sharing of theses polysaccharide antigens of Proteus with some rickettsiae forms the basis of the Weil-Felix reaction for the diagnosis of some rickettsial infections. Total three non motile strains, among them two of Proteus vulgaris OX2, OX19 and one Proteus mirabilis OX K are applicable as the antigens for this test P. mirabilis has been described as causing sepsis. Proteus is a urease-forming bacterium and may be associated with urinary tract infections. Sporadic outbreaks reported in the literature have described pyelonephritis, splenomegaly, hepatic lesions, and fibrinopurulent exudate in the peritoneal cavity. Diagnosis Press; 2007. 756 pp

Proteus mirabilis UTI causes, symptoms, diagnosis

LAB- Diagnosis Specimen: according to the side of infection ( Pus, swabs, blood, urine, sputumetc). Direct Gram stain (same specimen). Culture & incubation. Colonial morphology. Indirect Gram stain. Biochemical reaction Proteus mirabilis, P. penneri, P. vulgaris, and P. cibarius were identified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, the diagnosis was confirmed as Proteus septicaemia Research Hospitalization Volume, DRGs, Quality Outcomes, Top Hospitals & Physicians for B964 - Proteus (mirabilis) (morganii) as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere - ICD 10 Diagnosis Cod

Proteus mirabilis Proteus mirabilis is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is a small gram-negative bacillus and a facultative anaerobe. Proteus mirabilis is characterized by its swarming motility, urease activity, its ability to ferment of infection caused by Proteus and other organisms. Diagnosis An alkaline urine sample is a. The study included isolation and diagnosis of bacteria Proteus mirabilis from patients suffering from urinary tract infection (UTI) with different types (simple and complicated cases) and from. Proteus mirabilis is a type of bacteria that can cause infections in the body, particularly urinary tract infections. In this lesson, learn about the causes, symptoms, and treatments for Proteus.

Get your health question answered instantly from our pool of 18000+ doctors from over 80 specialtie Proteus mirabilis is commonly considered to be an opportunistic pathogen causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. However, some strains of P. mirabilis were found to be associated with food poisoning outbreaks, with the pathogenic mechanism still unclear. In our study, we described a novel strain of P. mirabilis C02011 isolated from patients' specimens in a food poisoning in China Differential diagnosis. The CT findings were very suggestive of an infected aneurysm of the aortic arch. We reviewed our initial diagnosis of pneumonia being the source of her P. mirabilis bacteraemia, as it is unusual for this to be originating from the respiratory tract. An infected aneurysm was considered a more likely source and there had likely been an antecedent infection of unknown.

Proteus motility - YouTube

Proteus spp. can be found to colonize the vaginal introitus prior to onset of bacteruria. Therefore, like Escherichia coli, Proteus spp. causes urinary tract infections by ascending from the rectum to the periurethra and bladder. P. mirabilis is by far the most common species identified in clinical specimens. P. mirabilis is a common cause of. Laboratory Diagnosis & Identification. The sample used for the isolation and identification of the Proteus species depends on the nature of the disease/site of infections.For UTI, a midstream urine sample is used, and for pyogenic lesions, it is the pus aspirate. Sample should be collected in the sterile container maintaining aseptic conditions and should reach the laboratory within an hour of. Proteus is a urease-forming bacterium and may be associated with urinary tract infections. Sporadic outbreaks reported in the literature have described pyelonephritis, splenomegaly, hepatic lesions, and fibrinopurulent exudate in the peritoneal cavity. Diagnosis Press; 2007. 756 pp. P. mirabilis infection can be diagnosed by the isolation o

Video: Proteus Mirabilis Infections - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshel

Proteus Mirabilis - Health

Proteus mirabilis: H 2 S production, indole negative and motile. Proteus vulagris: H 2 S production, indole positive and motile. Citrate Utilization test: Ability of an organism to use citrate as the sole source of carbon and energy. Proteus mirabilis: Generally positive but a minority of strains give a negative result electrochemical detection of the clinically important pathogen Proteus mirabilis. Using impedance spectroscopy in conjunction with a normalisation approach, the growth of P. mirabilis in LB medium was detected 1 hour after sample inoculation at a cell concentration of 7.4 x106 CFU/mL Endimiani A, Luzzaro F, Brigante G, et al. Proteus mirabilis bloodstream infections: risk factors and treatment outcome related to the expression of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Antimicrob. Laboratory diagnosis Specimen • Urine. • Pus. • blood. • ear discharge 7. Gram stain • Gram-negative rods 8. Culture characteristic 9. On blood agar • Proteus mirabilis does not form distinctive colonies on Blood Agar, instead the bacteria swarm across the surface of the agar P mirabilis causes 90% of Proteus infections and can be considered a community-acquired infection.P vulgaris and P penneri may be isolated from individuals in long-term care facilities and.

Proteus species can also cause wound infections, sepsis, and pneumonia, mostly in hospitalized patients.[3] Treatment[edit] P. mirabilis is generally susceptible to most antibiotics apart from tetracycline and nitrofurantoin,[4] but 10-20% of P. mirabilis [en.wikipedia.org Diagnosis An alkaline urine sample is a possible sign of P. mirabilis. P. mirabilis can be diagnosed in the lab due to characteristic swarming motility, and inability to metabolize lactose on a MacConkey agar plate. Also P. mirabilis produces a very distinct fishy odour. Diseas zdiscuss the pathogenecity, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of Proteus and Providencia. 25.2 GENUS PROTEUS They are gram-negative bacilli, 1-3 µm long and 0.6 µm wide. They are non-capsulated and are actively motile by peritrichous flagella. The name 'Proteus' refers to their pleomorphism, after the Greek God Proteus who could assume.

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) : Etiopathogenesis and Lab

Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium. Bacteria of the genus Proteus of the family Enterobacteriaceae are opportunistic human pathogens responsible for wound and burn infections as well as skin, eye, ear, nose, throat, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal infections and bacteremias Proteus mirabilis is known to be the major reason for this as other proteus species are also responsible. Proteus mirabilis can also cause infection in the respiratory tract, eye, ear, nose, skin, throat, burns, and wounds and has been implicated in neonatal meningoencephalitis, empyema, and osteomyelitis. Laboratory Diagnosis Elucidation of Proteus mirabilis as a Key Bacterium in Crohn's Disease Inflammation Jingwan Zhang,1 Emily C. Hoedt,2,3 Qin Liu,1 Erwin Berendsen,2 Jing Jie Teh,2 Amy Hamilton,4,5 Amy Wilson O' Brien,4,5 Jessica Y. L. Ching,1 Hong Wei,6 Keli Yang,1 Zhilu Xu,1 Sunny H. Wong,1,7 Joyce W. Y. Mak,1 Joseph J. Y. Sung,1 Mark Morrison,2 Jun Yu,1,7 Michael A. Kamm,4,5 and Siew C. Ng1,

The sharing of these polysaccharide antigens of Proteus witH some rickettsiae forms the basis of the Weil-Felix reaction for the diagnosis of some rickettsial infections. Total three non-motile strains, among them two of Proteus vulgaris OX2, OX19, and one Proteus mirabilis OX K are applicable as the antigens for this test Dr. Larry Lutwick answered. 49 years experience Infectious Disease. Common: Proteus mirabilis is often found as a cause of urinary tract infection. Because the bug produces a urease enzyme, the urea in the urine is metabolize Read More. 1 doctor agrees. 0. 0 comment. 1

Proteus Mirabilis - Treatment, Causes, Contagious

Proteus Mirabili

  1. g motility and urease activity. P. mirabilis causes 90% of all Proteus infections in humans. It is widely distributed in soil and water. Proteus mirabilis can migrate across the surface of solid media or devices using a type of cooperative group motility called swar
  2. istered for 6 weeks
  3. For a diagnosis of sepsis, assign the appropriate code for the underlying systemic infection. If the type of infection or causal organism is not further specified, assign code A41.9, Sepsis, unspecified organism. In the case posted the underlying infection is the UTI not sepsis, and the organism is the proteus mirabilis
  4. ant of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, the two most common strains responsible for urinary tract infection (UTI)
  5. Diagnosis and treatment of Proteus infections. Lab cultures can easily find Proteus strains. Uncomplicated UTIs in women can be treated with oral antibiotics, but anyone with a complicated UTI may need longer and/or alternative treatments. In severe cases, this might include the removal of struvite calculi or other surgery

The bacteria Proteus mirabilis in urine - Medical diagnosi

Bacteria for EMB, MAC, and MSA Flashcards | Easy Notecards

Concurrent neonatal Proteus mirabilis infection in dizygotic twins Lillian Sung MD FRCPC1, Noni E MacDonald MD FRCPC2, James S Hutchison MD FRCPC2 P roteus species is a well known cause of neonatal sepsis and is particularly associated with meningitis and brain abscess. In contrast with the frequent reports of concurren After attachment and colonization within the urinary tract, Proteus spp. release urease, which catalyzes the conversion of urea into ammonia and CO 2 Footnote 3 Footnote 5. This causes a decrease in the urine pH and may eventually lead to the formation of kidney or bladder stones. P. mirabilis causes the most infections among all Proteus spp B96.4 is a valid billable ICD-10 diagnosis code for Proteus (mirabilis) (morganii) as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere.It is found in the 2021 version of the ICD-10 Clinical Modification (CM) and can be used in all HIPAA-covered transactions from Oct 01, 2020 - Sep 30, 2021. ↓ See below for any exclusions, inclusions or special notation Proteus mirabilis es una bacteria Gram-negativa, facultativamente anaeróbico.Muestra aglutinación, motilidad, y actividad ureasa. P. mirabilis causa el 90% de todas las infecciones por 'Proteus'. Viene de la Tribu Proteae. Diagnosis. Una muestra de orina alcalina es un posible signo de P. mirabilis.. P. mirabilis puede diagnosticarse en el lab debido a su característica motilidad agrupada.

Proteus mirabilis: Morphology, Pathogenesis, Clinical

  1. g motility and urease activity. P. mirabilis causes 90% of all Proteus infections in humans. It is widely distributed in soil and water. [1
  2. Proteus mirabilis . is a gram negative bacillus, belonging to the family of enterobacteria, facultatively anaerobic. It shows agglutination, motility, and urease activity. P. mirabilis causes 90% of all 'Proteus' infections. It comes from the Proteae Tribe
  3. Search Page 1/1: proteus. 5 result found: ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code B96.4 [convert to ICD-9-CM] Proteus (mirabilis) (morganii) as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere. Proteus (mirabilis) (morganii) causing dis classd elswhr; Proteus infection; Proteus urinary tract infection. ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code B96.4

Proteus mirabilis - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. Proteus spp, which is an important diagnostic and differentiating characteristic of this genus in relation to some genera of enterobacteraceae (Brooke et al., 2007). 38 Proteus mirabilis produces protease to protect itself from the body's immune defenses (Dattelbaun et al., 2003) , Proteus also have the ability to for
  2. association between Proteus related pleural disease and chronic renal disease. We present a patient with an infected chronic renal cyst found to have an empyema secondary to Proteus mirabilis to highlight the importance of further diagnostic workup when encountering unusual organisms in the pleural space. Case presentatio
  3. Proteus mirabilis 11 (1.6) 12. Coagulase-negative staphylococcif 9 (1.3) potential difference of 1,500 V, 30 mA, and 30 W, and 13. Citrobacter spp.g 8 (1.1) stained with 0.5 mM Cefinase 2 (Becton Dickinson Micro- 14
  4. Proteus mirabilis UTI causes, symptoms, diagnosis Introduction: Proteus mirabilis Description of Proteus mirabilis. Over the past few months, Nancy has not Introduction Proteus mirabilis, part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of bacilli, is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe with an ability to ferment maltose and inability to ferment.
  5. Proteus mirabilis. To read this antibiogram: Each antibiotic is presented in three columns. The first column lists the name of the antibiotic. The middle column represents susceptibility in percent to that antibiotic. The 3rd column represents the number of isolates tested for that specific antibiotic. Susceptibility greater than or equal to 90.
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  7. producing) Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance, to guide reasonable us of antibiotice s and to avoid nosocomial outbreak infections by ESBL-pro- ducing P. mirabilis . 125 clinical isolates of P. mirabilis were collected from the Drug-Resistan

Proteus mirabilis: This would be incredibly unusual and would seriously question the diagnosis. This organism is most commonly found in the GI tract and can cause uti. Often on the surface of the skin, but seldom if ever the cause of infection.See an infectious diseases expert and get examined. Good luck Engstrand M., Engstrand L., Hogman C. F., Hambraeus A., and Branth S.Retrograde transmission of Proteus mirabilis during platelet transfusion and the use of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction for bacteria typing in suspected cases of transfusion transmission of infection.Transfusion35199587187 Proteus mirabilis infections can be treated with broad-spectrum penicillins or... Not relevant? Ask a doctor now . Ive been disgnosed with proteus Diagnosis of proteus mirabilis infections Proteus mirabilis infection in the shoulder How get rid of proteus mirabilis. Weil-Felix test by Tube method. Dilute the patient serum (two fold) using 0.25% phenol saline and make final volume of 1 ml. Add 1 drop of desired antigen ( Proteus OX19 or OX2 or OXK) in each test tube. Incubate the test tubes at 50-55 C for 4-6 hours. Visible flocculation or granulation on slight agitation indicates the positive test. Organism Diagnosis. An alkaline urine sample is a possible sign of P. mirabilis.It can be diagnosed in the lab due to characteristic swarming motility, and inability to metabolize lactose (on a MacConkey agar plate, for example). Also P. mirabilis produces a very distinct fishy odor.. Disease. This rod-shaped bacterium has the ability to produce high levels of urease, which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia.

Most Noticeable Proteus Mirabilis . It is thought that this drug can boost the risk of kernicterus in the newborn. At the close of the study a substantial decrease in the incidence of UTIs in the treatment group in comparison to the placebo group was noted. As a result, until age 35 decades, virtually all patients with urological infections are. Diagnosis. Medical experts have a list of various features exhibited by a person suffering from Proteus syndrome. This helps in easy detection of the abnormal growth. This type of list is known as the diagnostic criteria and it aids doctors in fast and accurate diagnosis of the syndrome Diagnosis Code: B96.4 Short Description: Proteus (mirabilis) (morganii) causing dis classd elswhr Long Description: Proteus (mirabilis) (morganii) as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere The code B96.4 is VALID for claim submission. Code Classification: Certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99

Recent advances in biosensor based diagnosis of urinary

[Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis

  1. (proteus species) Mode of transmission,mechanisms by which microorganisms cause disease and diagnosis. Define proteus. A Gram negative rod.Its an enterobactericeae List the species of proteus · Proteus mirabilis can be differentiated from proteus vulgaris by the indole test
  2. g motility, urease production, biofilm formation, and the properties of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are all factors that contribute to the virulence of this bacterium. Uniquely, members of the O18 serogroup elaborate LPS molecules capped with O antigen polymers built.
  3. g motility, and inability to metabolize lactose (on a MacConkey agar plate, for example.) Also P. mirabilis produces a very distinct odour.. Disease. This rod shaped bacterium has the ability to produce high levels of urease

Proteus mirabilis - Wikipedi

Proteus spp were significantly more prevalent and abundant in fecal samples and colonic tissue of patients with CD than controls. A greater abundance of the genus Fusobacterium and a lesser abundance of the genus Faecalibacterium were seen in patients with CD with a high Proteus spp abundance. All 24 Proteus monoclones isolated from patients with CD belonged to members of P mirabilis lineages. The link between Proteus mirabilis, environmental factors and autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis.Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017 May 8. Researchers point to Proteus mirabilis as being a major microbial cause of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evidenced by the role this infection plays in autoantibody production commonly associated with RA, such as rheumatoid factors (RF) and anti-citrullinated. Billable codes are sufficient justification for admission to an acute care hospital when used a principal diagnosis. | ICD-10 from 2011 - 2016 B96.4 is a billable ICD code used to specify a diagnosis of proteus (mirabilis) (morganii) as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere

Swamming Colony Proteus Mirabilis On Blood Stock Photo

Proteus - Infectious Disease and Antimicrobial Agent

Managing an Acute and Chronic Periprosthetic Infection

Proteus mirabilis gastrointestinal tract infection

Abstract. Proteus mirabilis is generally easy to culture, but its tendency to swarm on a wide variety of media can interfere with isolation of single colonies or identification of other species in a sample. Therefore, specialized media may be needed to control swarming or to study the bacteria under chemically defined conditions Baghdad Teaching Hospital and they diagnosed by clinic's rheumatologists from February to May 2016 at Baghdad hospitals. Extraction of the Proteus mirabilis DNA of the study from bacterial cells using Genomic DNA Mini kit which supplemented by the manufacturing company (Promega, US). DNA electrophoresis in agarose gel, it has performed according t Proteus mirabilis is the second most common pathogen that causes urinary tract infections after Escherichia coli. In rare cases, it is associated with vertebral osteomyelitis. The underlying mechanism of this relationship may be related to the retrograde dissemination of bacteria through the paravertebral venous plexus. We report a case of an 80-year-old Taiwanese woman who had recurrent. The most common pathogen in uncomplicated infections is Escherichia coli, followed by other Enterobacteriaceae, including Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. 13 Local susceptibility data on these uropathogens should be used to direct empirical antibiotic prescribing, since resistance has increased in. Introduction. Proteus mirabilis, part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of bacilli, is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe with an ability to ferment maltose and inability to ferment lactose.P. mirabilis also has a swarming motility and the ability to self-elongate and secrete a polysaccharide when in contact with solid surfaces; this allows for attachment and easy motility along surfaces (e.

Skin and Soft Tissue Infections - American Family Physician

Urinary tract infections caused by multi-drug resistant

Accordingly, is Proteus indole positive? P. mirabilis and P. penneri are indole-negative, while other Proteus species are indole-positive. How do I know if I have Proteus mirabilis? Diagnosis. An alkaline urine sample is a possible sign of P. mirabilis. It can be diagnosed in the lab due to characteristic swarming motility, and inability to. The Accelerate PhenoTest BC is a multiplexed in vitro diagnostic test utilizing both qualitative nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identification and quantitative Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, not differentiated), Citrobacter spp. (i.e., Citrobacte Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are major healthcare problems that are usually treated empirically. However, antimicrobial resistance has been increasing across many settings. This study aims to elucidate the antibiotic resistance profiles of three common uropathogens, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), and Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and. Details. PHIL Home. ID#: 6691. Description: Caption: This photograph depicts the colonies of Gram-negative, Proteus mirabilis bacteria, grown on a xylose-lysine-deoxycholate (XLD) agar plate. Xylose Lyseine (XL) agar is used when trying to culture and isolate Gram-negative enteric bacilli. When XL agar is supplemented with sodium thiosulfate.

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Proteus Mirabilis Infections Articl

Unexpected source of Proteus mirabilis bacteraemia BMJ

The Accelerate PhenoTest™ BC kit is a multiplexed in vitro diagnostic test utilizing both qualitative nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identification and quantitative, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, not differentiated), Citrobacter spp. (i.e., Citrobacter freundii. E. coli and Pr. mirabilis. The diameter of the inhibition zone was ranged from 27.0 to 28.0 mm for garlic extract, as compared with 12.0 to 18.0 mm for Ciprofloxacin against both genera; E. coli and Proteus mirabilis, respectively. The efficacy of adherence and biofilm formation by E. coli and Pr. Mirabilis was much reduced

Enterobacteriaceae